November 5, 2008

Drilling 3. Drilling Equipment


The Drilling System

Sistem-sistem ini berada dalam satu kesatuan unit Rig, menyangkut sumber daya, alat putar, sistem sirkulasi dari cairan pengeboran, dan juga keamanan dari adanya tekanan dari perut bumi. Secara umum terbagi 4 :

Power system
Hoisting system
Rotating system
Circulating system
BOP system

A. Power System

System of energy in drilling operation consisted of two sub-component,
(1). Power Supply Equipment : yielded by machine - big machine which known as " Prime Mover"
(2).Distribution equipment ( transmission), convert the energy that is needed for drilling operation.
Transmission system can be conducted by one from those system, that are mechanical transmission system and system of electric transmission.

Almost most available power at rig consumed by hoisting system and circulating system. Other system only a few consume available power. Fortunately hoisting and circulating system do not need energy simultaneously, so the same machine can provide energy for both of system. Totalize common energy needed in a rig is 1000 until 3000 hp.
Generally the activator source of modern the rig powered by internal-combustion diesel engine.
In general, it can be classified as follow :
1. Diesel-electric type
2. Direct-drive type
Depended from method used for the energy transmission to various system at the rig.

Direct-Drive Type
Mechanical Power Transmission ( mechanic energy transmission ) meant that energy yielded by machine continued mechanically
Energy is yielded by prime mover connected together with other machine to supply sufficient energy. It is conducted by hydraulic Coupling (Torque Converters), that connected together ( compounded).
This energy is continued through elaborate sprocket and chain linking system (chain system ), in the physical distribute energy to unit needing energy. This system now is replaced by electrical transmission ( formation of electric power transmission).

Diesel-Electric Type
Mostly drilling rig now have used electric transmission system power which must be conducted through cable. This diesel engine give mechanic energy and convert to be electrics by generator attached in front of the block. Generator yields electrics current and conducted through the cable and transmitted to other device by " Control Unit" ( control cabinet).
From control cabinet, electric power continued through additional cable to electromotor interfaced to other equipments system, like hoisting, rotary, Circulation system, lighting and other.

B. Hoisting System

Hoisting system represent one of drilling equipments component, functioning to give sufficient workroom for “tripping in” and “tripping out” of drill string and casing into/from the drill hole during drilling operation
Hoisting system is very important which this system getting or suffering of biggest burden, burden vertically and also burden horizontal. Vertical burden come from tower burden, drill string ( drill pipe and drill collar), casing string, tension of dead line, tension from fast line and also tension from the block. Horizontal burden come from puff of wind and also drill pipe leaned at tower. Burden which is because of this puff of wind is very influence hoisting burden system when drilling conducted at offshore, as in north sea field where wind speed very big
Hoisting system is consisted of two sub- component, these are :

Supporting structure (Rig) :

Rig Floor
Drilling tower ( Derrick / Mast )

Hoisting equipment :

Overhead Tools (Crown Block, Travelling Block, Hook, and Elevator)
Drilling Line
continue ..

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